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Full stack developer and stand-up comic.

CRUD and RESTful user interface conventions.

Create, Read, Update and Delete

What is C.R.U.D?

The unfortunately unpleasant acronym “CRUD” refers to the four basic methods developers use to take data from a user interface and store it in an application: “Create,” “Read,” “Update,” and “Delete.” The inception of this helpful and commonly used acronym was likely coined in 1983 by IT consultant and author James Martin. These four functions interact with database applications and persist data on the backend of an app. Many programming languages have “CRUD” equivalents with analogous words.

CREATE - post, add new entry, taking new data and adding it to the database/backend.

Ex) Posting…

HTML and accessible web design for people with disabilities or impairments.

“Web accessibility,” “computer accessibility,” or “accessible computing” are all terms that refer to crucial developmental standards and techniques for making a website or web application easily manipulated by anyone, including people with a given disability or impairment.


ARIA or WAI-ARIA (Web Accessibility Initiative - Accessibility Rich Internet Applications) outlines a set of technical standards for accessibility. It was published and recommended by the W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) in 2014. ARIA includes a multitude of markup extensions as HTML attributes that function to assign specific meanings for screen readers.

Web app authentication, information exchanges and user security.

What is Authentication?

Authentication is a process by which developers verify a user’s, well, authenticity. It ensures that your app can confirm the identity of a user, and secure their content from unauthorized bots or users.

In my last post entitled “Enter the Internet,” I discuss HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol), which is essentially a language that browsers speak in order to communicate with servers. …

Helpful terms and concepts to know for interacting with the Internet.

It looks just like this.

The internet is essentially a global framework of networks that can communicate with any number of remote devices. The internet contains multitudes of information and tools for clients including documents, applications, e-mail, file sharing, and of course, TikTok videos wherein cat owners take advantage of their pets for fame and don’t pay them a fair wage for their labor. Here are a few terms and concepts you’ll need to be familiar with before introducing your remote project to the complex structure of the internet.

Some helpful Ruby Gems and what they can do for your code!

“Gems” are chunks of code that contain standardized Ruby and perform specific functions to make your life easier when building a Ruby application!

Ruby Refresher

Ruby is a dynamic object-oriented programming language. “Object-oriented” is a programming paradigm that uses instances of code and data stored in “objects.” Ruby was created in the 1990s by Yukihiro Matsumoto, famously know as “Matz,” Japanese computer scientist and software developer. It is one of the more user-friendly and descriptive languages, and it comes with a very useful feature: “gems.”

Implementing Browser Router and Navigation Bars in your web applications

What is Browser Router? Who is Browser Router? Why is Browser Router? I will only answer one of these questions in this post (as the other two are dumb, and I’ll let you figure out which one is the right one).

Simply, Browser Router is React’s router implementation for HTML5 browsers. They direct traffic functions on the internet and essentially make frontend pathways to different pages within an app or website, without redirecting (refreshing) the page. It’s a great way to resolve the page “flicker” that immediately dates a website…

A brief history, description and guide to integrating the Bootstrap design framework into your app.

Pull your app up by the bootstraps!

Bootstrap is an open-source CSS (cascading style sheets), HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) and JavaScript compatible framework used to design, primarily mobile, front end user interface components for applications. “CSS framework” describes a library of code used for web design, streamlined and standard-compliant for easy use and implementation.

The History of Bootstrap

Bootstrap first entered the world as “Twitter Blueprint,” designed by Mark Otto and Jacob Thornton at (you guessed it) Twitter, in hopes that the framework would help to standardize practices in front end web development among app…

What is Rack? What is Cors? How do they interact with one another?

“rack-cors” is a gem that you will see and use often. But what is it and what does it do? To know exactly what this gem does, you’ll need some foundational information about both “Rack” and CORS, what they represent and how they work together when implemented in your application.


“Rack” refers to the foundation of technology, an abstraction, upon which nearly all Ruby frameworks are based. There are a few different components of Rack. One, it is a simple architecture that allows one to build reusable…

“Hooks let us build components with less effort, and create better user experiences.” — Dan Abramov

Hooks are a relatively new addition in React 16.8, released in February 2019. Hooks let you “hook into” React features from components. They enable one to use state and other such features without having to write a class. Hooks are also backwards-compatible, meaning they are interoperable with older versions of React.

The State Hook

The State Hook is imported as {useState} from React in a given component. “useState” returns two values, a variable with a current state value, and a function that can be called upon to…

Sam Hall

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